The early history of Ujjain is lost in the midst of antiquity. As early as the time of the Aryan settlers, Ujjain seems to have acquired importance. In the 6th century B.C. Avanti with its capital at Ujjaini, was mentioned in Buddhist literature as one of the four great powers along with Vatsa, Kosala and Magadha.
The history of ujjain dates back to the times of Ramayan and Mahabharat. Lord Ram visited with goddess Sita mata. Lord Ram performed “Pind-daan” for his father Dashrath at Ramghat. Shashth Ganesh placed here is said to have been settled by Sita mata. It is also said that Krishna, Balram and Sudama studied in the ashram of guru Sandipani at Ujjain. In the battle of Mahabharat, the ruler of Ujjaiyini, Vind and Anuvind took part with much bigger army of two Akshohini army. Vind and Anuvind were the two brothers of Duryodhan among the 100 sons of Dhritarashtra. After the Mahabharat, the history of Ujjain went in to the dark but archaeological prints indicated that there was a technology and industry (bhatti etc.) of making “Iron” available at Ujjain in BC 800.
Ujjain used to lay on the main trade route between north India and Deccan going from Mathura via Ujjain to Mahishmati (Maheshwar) on the Narmada river and to Paithan on the river Godavari, western Asia and the West. The northern black polished ware, the NBP as it is often called which is technically the finest pottery of the time, with a brilliantly burnished dressing almost of the quality of a glaze in colour from jet black to a deep grey or metallic blue and iron, found their way to the northern Deccan from the Gangetic plains through Ujjain. The articles of export to the western Asia such as precious stones and pearls, scents and spices, perfumes, silks and muslin, reached the port of Brighukachcha from the remote north through Ujjain. All this finds a detailed and interesting description in the Periplus of the Erythrean Sea.